My advisors and the members of my dissertation committee have been exceptional. Throughout this entire process, from Cambridge to Manhattan to Delhi to Lawrence, she has been the embodiment vii of wisdom, compassion, and love. persuasive essay writer counter argument examples Theologically, of course, this is more complicated—Siva is free and independent, not controlled by his devotees—but in practice the logic of stotras often suggests that they are effective at persuading Siva to take action. The ancient custom, still observed in villages, especially of the south, is to repeat each name of the Sahasrandma, offering Tulasi leaves or any available flowers of the season to the idol of Visnu in his various incarnations as Rama, Krsna, etc. Thus stotra s function in a wide variety of ways based on their form and context, from liturgical texts with ritual efficacy comparable to that of mantras to invocations of auspiciousness to guides for the visualization of and meditation on a deity.
How do I not prosper, by great good fortune? De Broccard, ; La Bhakti: This survey spans approximately twelve hundred years, and thus it is necessarily selective. Or does great joy overwhelm me, O mind? Sources and Time, ed.
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While not every stotra can be said to express, invoke, or reflect on bhakti, 59 it remains a central feature to this genre based on a communication between a speaker and his or her human and divine audiences. They are distinct from the many stotras of unknown origin and authorship, found in various manuscripts archives, that may have been composed in Kashmir. A number of anonymous stotras of varying but often limited literary quality have been popular in Kashmir, particularly those associated with specific pilgrimage sites or festivals, as even a cursory examination of the manuscript catalogues of Indian archives will reveal.
Yet the formal addressee of such poetry is not its only audience. Meenu, Sudha and Deepanker have become our second family in Delhi. There are many stotras included in the Rdmdyana and the Mahdbhdrata, although it is unlikely that these belong to the older strata of the texts. In particular, many of them address the nature of non-dualistic praise and prayer, as well as non-dualistic Saiva bhakti.
Moreover, prasastis and stotras both consist in poetic language used to publically praise and glorify. Any thorough history of stotra literature must consider the development of both protection hymns and ndmastotras. They are seen as efficacious when recited in specific ways, often indicated by phalasruti verses. The fourteen disciples with him are said to have each added a verse of their own. Studi in onore di Raniero 73 scholarship in India, there have been a number of editions and translations of a few Kashmirian stotras, but these are often synchronic or repeat standard historical inaccuracies.
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She was an extraordinary woman who inspired everyone who met her with her enthusiasm, her strength, her wisdom and so much more. The fourteen disciples with him are said to have each added a verse of their own. dissertation titles childhood studies Both hymns are long and complex: I have chosen to focus on stotras whose authors are known, or which are attributed to specific authors, rather than look at anonymous stotras, many of which are said 82 to belong to specific scriptures.
Many devotional praise-poems in Tamil resembled the Sanskrit stotra both in structure and in style. By using the stotra form, Jnananetra is able to point to multiplicity—to himself as the speaker, to Siva, to the Goddess, to the world—and then overthrow such dichotomies by asserting their essential unity. online essay proofreading apps Ratnakara compares devotion to her to the blade of an axe in the forest of samsara, and says that Yama refrains from tightening his noose on her devotees after seeing the devastation she has wreaked upon her enemies.
At first prayer is an intimate intercourse with God, but gradually it becomes hard, impersonal, ceremonial, a rite consecrated by ancestral custom. Lastly, there are a small number of stotras in prose, and this distinguishing feature is usually indicated in their titles, such the SrTmahadevagadya, Prose [Hymn] to the Great God. narrative essay academic helping others As a simple working definition, therefore, we can say that stotras are usually short poems, almost always in verse, that directly and indirectly praise and appeal to a deity or some other religious addressee, such as a pilgrimage site and are considered efficacious in obtaining religious or material benefits when recited or sung. What is a Stotra? As he points out, this tension was so pronounced that Rudrata abandons any attempt to present an integrated approach, and instead offers separate formalist and rasn-based analyses ibid.
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A phalasruti can also describe how a stotra should be recited the proper time, place, and so on , and extol its power and greatness. Otto Harrassowitz, ], He who reads it twice a day Has ever abundance of paddy and wealth. NYU Press, ,
While these particular hymns are embedded in a long and complex piece of Sanskrit literature produced at the court of Kashmir, most hymns, full of devotional praise for specific deities, are more closely linked to ritual and worship. The actual number of such well-known literary hymns is small, but they have enjoyed great popularity and been influential on the history of stotras as well as other genres. It offers a broad introduction to the history and general features of the stotra genre, and it charts the course of these literary hymns in Kashmir from the ninth century to the present. As we will see in Chapters Four and Five, the poetry of Jagaddhara Bhatta in particular picks up the strategies of both of these poets, including the devotional use of citrakcivya. The net result of this is that our understanding of Sanskrit stotras and their history is based largely on southern traditions and contexts, despite important sources from north India—hence the focus of this study: